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vikram.jeet
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 13, 2021 3:52 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

SEDIMENT LOAD ESTIMATION

Any Flowing river carries with it sediments being transported with water currents as river moves from hilly terrain s to plains.
At very high altitudes, river is in bouldery stage having steep slopes ,flowing through narrow gorges in loops and bends  and velocity of flow carries big boulders with it.
At foothills the river slope flattens and it carry pebbles, silt, sand.

Any Headwork across river , face uphill task of passing / exclusion sediments , further to downstream , that got accumulated . The devices to be installed depends on sediment loads
Also sediment data is needed to know at what discharge , the machines to be halted to prevent excessive sediment in water Conductor system.
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vikram.jeet
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 14, 2021 3:34 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

SEDIMENT LOAD ESTIMATION
(In continuation)

The data of sediment load is not available at the site of Headworks location , and therefore it has to be worked out based on actual sediment load collected at some Irrigation / Power project on nearest upstream and/or downstream.

The sediment load at Headworks site
= (sediment at ExistingProject )/(Catchment area of Existingproject)
*( Catchment area of Headworks site)

In  Dams undersluices with gate operation  are provided to pass sediment on to downstream
In Barrages, a gate operated sluice bay of 6 m to 8m is provided to clear the boulders / sediment from Upstream to downstream.
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vikram.jeet
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 19, 2021 4:18 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

POWER POTENTIAL - HYDROPOWER

Power potential depends on availability of water  for generation of power. Rivers continually flow , but water discharge varies  hourly, daily and seasonally. Monsoon periods also cause heavy sediment Load in water and  plant need to shut down .
The Annual power generation is therefore dependent on availability of water during the year.

The main source of water availability in rivers is
(I) Melting of glaciers
(ii) Precipitations on upstream higher reaches of the catchment area
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vikram.jeet
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 19, 2021 4:46 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

POWER POTENTIAL - HYRO

The availability of water in river is analysed based on 10 daily average data  for Non monsoon months As well as for  whole year.

The availability of water discharge with 90% assurance  is termed as 90% Dependable Discharge is worked out.
Similarly availability of water discharge with 50% Assurance , termed as 50% Dependable discharge is also worked out.

The quantum 0f 90% dependable discharge would be lower than that of 50% dependable.

The power potential is worked  on basis of  :
1. As Base Load Station
2. As Peaking station
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vikram.jeet
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 20, 2021 3:36 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

POWER POTENTIAL - HYDRO

The Annual energy is worked out considering Power house as :

Base Load Station
The water in Storage reservoir upstream of Dam is maintained at Full Reservoir Level , and numbers of machines working depend upon the available discharge. For example if 4 Machines ( Turbine- Generator)  are installed , water level to be maintained at FRL , two machine work if available discharge is 50% , one machine works if discharge availability is 25% and so on.

Peaking Station
All installed  machines work , during peak Load demand hours, and water level in reservoir is allowed to drop from FRL to MDDL i.e. from Full Reservoir Level to Maximum Drawdown Level.
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 20, 2021 6:13 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

HYDROPOWER

From various postings on Hydro power it can be seen that Civil/ Structural engineers need to know the  information which is needed to accomplish the designs, be it on taking review on Hydrological data, topography , Geological data, Model studies, Type of turbines to be installed, sediment data , PMF fixation, and many more aspects , which are kept in view while attempting structural / civil designs of various structures.
Knowledge of other disciplines like Hydromechanical , Electromechanical , Electrical , Mechanical , safety , machine operations, Surge studies, and much more is required to carry out the designs since these HM , EM components are ultimately supported by  Civil Structures . Their forces are to be taken care in designs and stability calculations.
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vikram.jeet
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 21, 2021 10:08 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

SEDIMENT LOAD IN HYDRO PROJECTS LOCATED IN  UPPER REACHES  ( HIGH ALTITUDES)

River during monsoon carries with it heavy boulders , and any Barrage of Power project located across the river , will have to pass the floods along with such sediments . The sediments in form of heavy boulders fall from height and totally damage the downstream floor if it is not protected adequately.
Therefore Downstream  raft slab which is 2.0 to 3.0m thick having reinforcement at top as well as bottom surfaces , needs protection at top.
The protection to RCC raft is provided by fixing steel rails to be provided longitudinally and anchored in raft . The spacing of rails is very close . These are further embedded into M60 Concrete mix with silica flume.
The protection of raft is from heavy impact of large sized boulders.
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 23, 2021 8:04 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

GROUND LEVELS TO BE MENTIONED IN DRGS

Moving upwards , Following GL 's  needs to be mentioned in Foundations Drgs for providing clarity to site as well to designers themselves :

ORIGINAL VIRGIN GL (lowermost)
EXISTING GL
FORMATION GL
PLINTH LEVEL

It is Original GL , (OGL)which was there before any soil filling , from where Foundation depth counts.
Existing GL (EGL)may not be original due to filling. However to estimate the excavation volume for foundations , it is needed.
Formation GL (FGL)of plot is fixed based on drainage requirements ,
Outside plot GL, Road Level adjoining roadway ,
Plinth level (PL) is generally 0.30 to 0.50m above FGL.

By indicating all above levels , clarity prevails.
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 26, 2021 2:22 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

UPKEEP OF DESIGN CALCULATIONS AND DRAWINGS

It is very important to preserve the records of design calculations as well Structural drawings along with Soil Reports plus Architect drawings for any future references .
The activity of upkeep of Records is very important and  need to be inculcated as a habit.

In Manual design era , Separate files for each project design calculations along with respective Drawings Files were created.

At present , a pen drive is sufficient to preserve the records.

Whatever the way, Records must be preserved.
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 27, 2021 4:07 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

HOME LIBRARY OF ENGINEERS

Talking of need for ready reference , the LIBRARY immediately comes in mind. A thinking mind needs a Library at home itself. All philosophers , thinkers , and professional s of various fields are seen on TV with Books in the background.
A Civil / Structural engineer's mind is always thinking , be it the designs being tackled in office , or other technical / constuction issues , the books at home provide great help.
Yes now a days Hard books are all available on line and a pen drive can accommodate thousands of BIS codes .

Library in whatever form , is very helpful .
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