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vikram.jeet
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 22, 2021 3:51 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

AESTHETIC SENSE OF A STRUCTURAL DESIGNER

Generally it is considered that only Architects are the professionals of Aestheics , but Structural designers are equally sensitive to the art and Aestheics of Structures.

For Building works , Structural designer tries to fix the sizing of structurally visible components viz columns, beams , stairs as pleasing as possible , with due considerations to safety, economy and functionality

For Bridges , it was seen that , Bridge  Structures Designer always fix the shape , sizing , profile of bridges with due consideration to aesthetics, environment  alongside structural safety and stability.

Chimneys, Hyperbolic Cooling Towers , Signature Bridges, OH Water tanks , Balanced Cantilever Bridges ,  PEB structures , etc are conceived by Structural designers of respective fields .

However , aesthetic shall not supersede structural safety/stability
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vikram.jeet
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 22, 2021 4:20 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

AESTHETICS CONSIDERATIONS /CONCESSIONS BY STR DESIGNERS

Being  discussed in previous post , As a Structural designer , there is always a strong consideration for Aestheics provisions of structural members to provide a pleasing structure , be it a residential , commercial, hospital or any other building. Same is true for other structures.

Some situations as under:

1.0 A school Class room of size 20'x24'( no false ceiling) -
Either a thick RCC slab more than 150mm provided to have plane ceiling OR
Slab panel to be provided with two beams , keeping the panel size 8'x 20'.  The 24' spacing along length of class room divided into three panels  . Two beams do not look awkward vis a vis one central beam. An aesthetic consideration by designers.

2.0 Corridors with plane slab without X beams in corridors -
Generally long corridors of school or any other big building , if provided with X beams at regular intervals looks unaesthetic . Designers generally tries to either provide very low depth beams in corridors  OR  corridor slab as plane slab with conceal tie beam and corridor outer grid columns as gravity columns .

( to be continued)
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vikram.jeet
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 22, 2021 4:56 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

AESTHETIC CONSIDERATIONS / CONCESSIONS BY STR DESIGNERS
(In continuation)

3.0 Wide  ( on face)  Columns -
To break the heaviness of RCC column on face ,  a groove is provided  mostly in plaster / cladding . This may not require any adjustment in column design.  However if these are columns of open corridor , the twin columns  instead of one column ,  are provided to break heaviness of one wide column.

4.0 The stepped stairs  -
In situations where one side of stairs is open to view , as in case of duplex floors , stair from one floor to upper is open to view. In such situations , the stepped stairs in shape of riser and tread without slanting waist look very aesthetic . This is , though costly option
Also ,  a central slant RCC beam with steps placed and embedded in beam also provide aesthetic look. This is less costlier.

(to be continued)
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vikram.jeet
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 22, 2021 6:44 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

AESTHETIC CONSIDERATION/ CONCESSIONS BY  STR DESIGNERS

5.0 Helical stairs provision -
This Helical stair (  simultaneously curved in plan as well elevation) is cumbersome to design as it is a space structure , Bending moments and Torsional moments along with shear are to be worked out  in view of complex geometry . Designers realize the aesthetics of these stairs and dare to design .

6.0 Hanger RCC columns  -
To realize the usage of space , Hanging column ( Tension member) is also provided by SE  , with its root in upper floor beam. Mostly mazzanine floors as required are dealt in by Janet columns to have unobstructed space underneath mezzanine slabs

( to be continued)
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 22, 2021 7:54 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

AESTHETIC CONSIDERATION / CONCESSIONS BY STR  ENGINEER

7.0  LARGE SPAN CANTILEVER CONOPY -
Sometimes large span canopies without front  columns at outer canopy edges are preferred by owners/ Architects.  Keeping in view the aesthetic and other requirements , SE agrees for such large span cantilever beams . In order to give pleasing look at canopy soffit, the cantilever  beams are provided upstanding with slab at their bottom .this way the canopy slab gets a plain ceiling. The filling is done in the canopy sunken slab with light weight material like cinder . Some times availability of cinder becomes problem and it needs to be filled with brick ballast  and well compacted , design therefore account for load of at least lime concrete/ sand fill.

8.0 FLAT SLABS PROVISION. -
The provision of flat slabs in the large areas of a building is also a concession by the designer .As we all know flat slab system is a system where no down/ upstanding beams are desired  .  Designer of structures always prefer to have a proper RCC beams system to support the structure against gravity as well as EQ forces. But on demands , SE goes for flat slab system. In flat slab system , apart from RCC columns , there is need to introduce shear walls , the design and analysis becomes complex , but to discount the Aesthetics of structure , Designer show high heartedness.

(to be continued)
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 22, 2021 3:00 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

AESTHETIC CONSIDERATION / CONCESSION BY STRUCTURAL DESIGNERS

9.0  UNCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS -
As already discussed in earlier postings regarding concealed Beams , Stub Columns , Transfer Girders , RCC beams designed based on steal beam theory , L type slabs in plan , etc , the Structural engineer is generous enough to introduce these unconventional items for which Codes are mostly silent. But such provisions are solely based on experience of SE. These are real concessions to Architectural and aesthetic needs . Their design is based on logic .
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2021 2:55 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

AESTHETIC CONSIDERATION / CONCESSIONS BY STR DESIGNER

10.0 WAFFLE SLABS PROVISION -
This provision of waffle slabs for large span panels is also a consideration to Aesthetics. Though this structural member design guidelines are available in IS 456. Waffle slab construction requires higher shuttering cost and to reduce the same precast thin rcc castings are  cast at ground from plastic mould, and used as permanent bottom . Only scaffolding is needed during concreting of waffles.

The precast thin waffles are 40 -50 mm thick in trapezoidal xsec in both directions with 6mm Reinforcement. By joining , the adjacent precast waffle castings form xsection of  almost triangular beam in both direction to be reinforced and concreted with topping slab of about 75mm.
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2021 3:33 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

AESTHETIC CONSIDERATION / CONCESSIONS BY STR ENGR

11.0 FOLDED PLATE ROOF -
The  very large span halls , if required to be covered by RCC roof , the conventional beam and slab system is very costly. The structural engineers devised FOLDED PLATE THIN RCC ROOFS . The design of folded roof is to be tackled locally in transverse direction and , globally in longitudinal direction. In transverse direction the folded roof slab of 100 mm to 125 mm thick  is designed between c/c folded unit.  The span is small and thin slab thickness suffice. However the main challenge is in longitudinal direction where folded unit acting as a beam span between edge beams . The spans are very large , sometimes 40-50 meters. The depth of folded plate is fixed accordingly , so as to cater the large span as a beam.

The structure hall building looks highly Aestheics from front / back elevations , though SE has to exert his efforts much more than a conventional costly system.


Sir U H Varyani Saheb has also given a book to Structural engineering community .  His book is DESIGN OF FOLDED PLATE ROOFS . This book provides coefficients for design of long spans.
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2021 8:36 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

AESTHETIC CONSIDERATION / CONCESSIONS BY STR ER

12.0 SPACE TRUSS STEEL STRUCTURE
The space truss is also a structural formation which needs to be discussed when talk on aesthetic consideration is on the way . The space structure in steel look very elegant as the formation depth is same . Conventional Truss & Purlin ,bottom runner system is easy to design and fabricate , but the formation aesthetics stand nowhere in front of SPACE TRUSS STRUCTURE .

The structure is tough to analyse with manual computations , but with software the task of Structural designers has been made easy, though fabrication is complicated compared to conventional truss system. Material consumption is less in space structure , but fabrication cost is higher. Overall , I think cost may have marginal difference this way or that way vis a vis Truss-purlin system.
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 23, 2021 8:58 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

AESTHETIC CONSIDERATION / CONCESSIONS BY STR ER

13.0 OVERHEAD WATER TANKS
These structures are in the environmental view from great distance from all 360 vision. Their Aesthetics must be given thought , and Structural engineers are the ones who plan the geometry based on capacity requirements for water storage and distribution. In earlier times , the OH tanks were in intz form staged on rcc columns. To have further betterment in Aesthetics , SE have devised Conical form of tanks along with  hollow cylindrical shaft staging  . Some more innovative designs were also attempted at various places. The quest for better aesthetics is never over , when it comes to structural engineers .  
To provide Aestheics appearance , Structural designers have planned OH tanks  staged on with three no's slant RCC columns( IS code permission for three nos  columns staged tank capacity maximum 50000 litr , I think , needs to be checked from IS code on staging of rcc tanks).
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