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PostPosted: Sat Sep 18, 2021 10:24 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Analyzers Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Analyzers
Chapter 8

Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Analyzers
1     An analyser or analyzer is a tool used to analyze data.
2     For example, a gas analyzer tool is used to analyze gases
3     It examines given data and tries to find patterns and relationships.
4     An analyser can be a piece of hardware or software.
5     Analysis can be done directly on samples or analyser can process data acquired from a remote sensor.
6     Source of samples for automatic sampling is commonly some kind of industrial process. Analysers that are connected to a process and conduct automatic sampling can be called online (or on-line) analysers or sometimes inline (or in-line) analysers.
7     For inline analysis, a sensor can be placed in a process vessel or stream of flowing material.
8     Another method of online analysis is allowing a sample stream to flow from process equipment into an analyser, sometimes conditioning sample stream e.g. by reducing pressure or changing sample temperature.
9     Many analysers are not designed to withstand high pressure.
10     Such sampling is typically for fluids (either liquids or gases).
11     If sample stream is not substantially modified by analyser, it can be returned to process.
12     Otherwise, sample stream is discarded; for example, if reagents were added.
13     Pressure can be lowered by a pressure reducing valve. Such valves may be used to control flow rate to online analyser.
14     Temperature of a hot sample may be lowered by use of an online sample cooler.
15     Analysis can be done periodically (for example, every 15 minutes) or continuously.
16     For periodic sampling, valves (or other devices) can be switched open to allow a fluid sample stream to flow to analyser and shut when not sampling.
17     Some methods of inline analysis are so simple, such as electrical conductivity or pH, instruments are usually not even called analysers.
18     Salinity determined from simple online analysis is often, determined from a conductivity measurement, where output signal is calibrated in terms of salinity concentration (for example ppm of NaCl).
19     Various types of other analyses can be devised.
20     Physical properties can include electrical conductivity (or effectively electrical resistivity), refractive index and radioactivity measurement.
21     Simple processes that use inline electrical conductivity determination are water purification processes, which test how effectively salts have been removed from output water.
22     Electrical conductivity variations include cation and anion conductivity.
23     Chromatography, such as ion chromatography or HPLC, often tests output stream continuously by measuring electrical conductivity, particularly cation or anion conductivity, refractive index, colorimetry or ultraviolet / visible absorbance at a certain wavelength.
24     Inline, Online and offline analysers are available for other types of analytes. Many of these add reagents to samples or sample streams.
Project Specification
1     Analysers installed in analyser house / shelter shall be utilised for environmental monitoring at intake, outfall and at every consumer.
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suraj
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 18, 2021 11:25 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Control and On / Off Valves Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Control and On / Off Valves
Chapter 8

Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Control and On / Off Valves
1     A control valve is a valve used to control fluid flow by varying size of flow passage as directed by a signal from a controller.
2     This enables direct control of flow rate and consequential control of process quantities, such as pressure, temperature,, and liquid level.
3     In automatic control terminology, a control valve is termed a "final control element".
4     Opening or closing of automatic control valves is usually done by electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic actuators.
5     Normally with a modulating valve, which can be set to whatever position, between fully open and fully closed, valve positioners are used to ensure valve attains desired degree of opening.
6     Air-actuated valves are commonly used, because of their simplicity, as they only require a compressed air supply, whereas electrically-operated valves require additional cabling and switch gear and hydraulically-actuated valves require high pressure supply and return lines for hydraulic fluid.
7     Pneumatic control signals are traditionally based on a pressure range of 3-15psi (0.2-1.0 bar) or more commonly now, an electrical signal of 4-20mA for industry or 0-10V for HVAC systems.
8     Electrical control now often, includes a "Smart" communication signal superimposed on 4-20mA control current, such that health and verification of valve position can be signalled back to controller.
9     HART, Fieldbus Foundation and Profibus are most common protocols.
10     An automatic control valve consists of three main parts, in which each part exist in several types and designs:
a     Valve actuator - which moves valve's modulating element, such as ball or butterfly.
b     Valve positioner - Which ensures valve has reached desired degree of opening. This overcomes problems of friction and wear.
c     Valve body - in which modulating element, a plug, globe, ball or butterfly, is contained.
11     Taking example of an air-operated valve, there are two control actions possible:
a     "Air or current to open" - Flow restriction decreases with increased control signal value.
b     "Air or current to close" - Flow restriction increases with increased control signal value.
12     There can also, be failure to safety modes:
a     Air or control signal failure to close" - On failure of compressed air to actuator, valve closes under spring pressure or by backup power.
b     Air or control signal failure to open" - On failure of compressed air to actuator, valve opens under spring pressure or by backup power.
13     Modes of failure operation are requirements of failure to safety process control specification of plant.
14     In case of cooling water it may be to fail open and case of delivering a chemical, it may be to fail closed.
15     Fundamental function of a positioner is to deliver pressurized air to valve actuator, such that position of valve stem or shaft corresponds to set point from control system.
16     Positioners are typically used, when a valve requires throttling action.
17     A positioner requires position feedback from valve stem or shaft and delivers pneumatic pressure to actuator to open and close valve.
18     Positioner must be mounted on or near control valve assembly.
19     There are three main categories of positioners, depending on type of control signal, diagnostic capability and communication protocol: pneumatic analog and digital
20     Second type of positioner is an analog I/P positioner.
21     Most modern processing units use a 4 to 20 mA DC signal to modulate control valves.
22     This introduces electronics into positioner design and requires that positioner convert electronic current signal into a pneumatic pressure signal (current-to-pneumatic or I / P).
23     In a typical analog I / P positioner, converter receives a DC input signal and provides a proportional pneumatic output signal through a nozzle / flapper arrangement.
24     Pneumatic output signal provides input signal to pneumatic positioner.
25     Otherwise, design is same as pneumatic positioner
26     While pneumatic positioners and analog I / P positioners provide basic valve position control, digital valve controllers add another dimension to positioner capabilities.
27     This type of positioner is a microprocessor-based instrument.
28     Microprocessor enables diagnostics and two-way communication to simplify setup and troubleshooting.
29     In a typical digital valve controller, control signal is read by microprocessor, processed by a digital algorithm and converted into a drive current signal to the I / P converter.
30     Microprocessor performs position control algorithm, rather than a mechanical beam, cam and flapper assembly.
31     As control signal increases, drive signal to I / P converter increases, increasing output pressure from I / P converter.
32     This pressure is routed to a pneumatic amplifier relay and provides two output pressures to actuator.
33     With increasing control signal, one output pressure always increases and other output pressure decreases
34     Double-acting actuators use both outputs, whereas single-acting actuators use only one output.
35     Changing output pressure causes actuator stem or shaft to move. Valve position is fed back to microprocessor.
36     Stem continues to move until correct position is attained.
37     At this point, microprocessor stabilizes drive signal to I / P converter, until equilibrium is obtained.
38     In addition to function of controlling position of valve, a digital valve controller has two additional capabilities: diagnostics and two-way digital communication.
39     Widely used communication protocols include HART, FOUNDATION fieldbus, and PROFIBUS.
40     Advantages of placing a smart positioner on a control valve:
a     Automatic calibration and configuration of positioner.
b     Real time diagnostics.
c     Reduced cost of loop commissioning, including installation and calibration.
d     Use of diagnostics to maintain loop performance levels.
e     Improved process control accuracy that reduces process variability.

Control and on / off valves for project
1     All control and on / off valves for project shall have motorized actuators (with exception of certain pneumatic valves, having independent Instrument Air System for Electro Chlorination Package).
2     Actuators shall be intelligent type and communicate on single pair cable, forming a network.
3     A master station shall be located in CCR / LLCC for certain number of MOVs based on manufacturer’s recommendation.
4     Output signal from DCS to control valves (FVSs and CCVS) shall be hardwired.
5     Combined check valves (CCVS) shall have electro hydraulic actuators.
6     Each CCV shall have an Independent Hydraulic System and control panel.
7     Contractor shall develop network and implement for project.
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suraj
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 18, 2021 11:27 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Other Field Instrumentation Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Other Field Instrumentation
Chapter 8

Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Other Field Instrumentation
1     Contractor shall ensure that all field instruments are procured from suppliers, listed in company / client supplier’s list.
2     Also, all instruments shall completely, comply with all project documents.
3     There is a special requirement to measure seawater temperature one meter below surface at outfall.
4     Temperature points shall be distributed in a semicircular fashion at a distance of 100 meter from discharge point.
5     A sensor attached to a floating buoy is a preferred arrangement.
6     Contractor may suggest some other alternatives for consideration by company / client.
7     Cables for these temperature sensors shall be sleeved with a pipe and precast concrete blocks.
8     Alternatively, remote wireless sensors and transmitters can be considered.
9     Access shall be provided for sensors inspection / replacement.
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 18, 2021 11:34 pm    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+SHE Reply with quote

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suraj
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PostPosted: Sun Sep 19, 2021 10:24 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Chemical Plant Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Chemical Plant
Chapter 8

Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Chemical Plant  
1     A chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes) chemicals, usually on a large scale.
2     General objective of a chemical plant is to create new material wealth via chemical or biological transformation and or separation of materials.
3     Chemical plants use specialized equipment, units and technology in manufacturing process.
4     Other kinds of plants, such as polymer, pharmaceutical, food and some beverage production facilities, power plants, oil refineries or other refineries, natural gas processing and biochemical plants, water and wastewater treatment and pollution control equipment use many technologies that have similarities to chemical plant technology, such as fluid systems and chemical reactor systems.
5     Some would consider an oil refinery or a pharmaceutical or polymer manufacturer to be effectively a chemical plant.
6     Petrochemical plants (plants using chemicals from petroleum, as a raw material or feedstock) are usually located adjacent to an oil refinery to minimize transportation costs for feedstocks, produced by refinery.
7     Speciality chemical and fine chemical plants are usually much smaller and not as sensitive to location.
8     Tools have been developed for converting a base project cost from one geographic location to another.
9     Chemical plants use chemical processes, which are detailed industrial-scale methods, to transform feedstock chemicals into products.
10     Same chemical process can be used at more than one chemical plant, with possibly differently scaled capacities at each plant.
11     Also, a chemical plant at a site may be constructed to utilize more than one chemical process, for instance to produce multiple products.
12     A chemical plant commonly has usually large vessels or sections called units or lines that are interconnected by piping or other material-moving equipment, which can carry streams of material.
13     Such material streams can include fluids (gas or liquid carried in piping) or sometimes solids or mixtures, such as slurries.
14     An overall chemical process is commonly made up of steps called unit operations, which occur in individual units.
15     A raw material going into a chemical process or plant as input to be converted into a product is commonly called a feedstock or simply feed. In addition to feedstocks for plant as a whole, an input stream of material to be processed in a particular unit can similarly be considered feed for that unit.
16     Output streams from plant as a whole are final products and sometimes output streams from individual units may be considered intermediate products for their units.
17     However, final products from one plant may be intermediate chemicals used as feedstock in another plant for further processing.
18     For example, some products from an oil refinery may used as feedstock in petrochemical plants, which may in turn produce feedstocks for pharmaceutical plants.
19     Either feedstock(s), product(s) or both may be individual compounds or mixtures.
20     It is often, not worthwhile separating components in these mixtures completely; specific levels of purity depend on product requirements and process economics.
21     Chemical processes may be run in continuous or batch operation.
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PostPosted: Sun Sep 19, 2021 10:26 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Chemical Plant +Batch operation Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Chemical Plant +Batch operation
Chapter 8

Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Chemical Plant  
Batch operation
1     In batch operation, production occurs in time-sequential steps in discrete batches.
2     A batch of feedstock(s) is fed (or charged) into a process or unit, then chemical process effects or works, then product(s) and whatever other outputs are removed.
3     Such batch production may be repeated over again and again with new batches of feedstock.
4     Batch operation is commonly used in smaller scale plants, such as pharmaceutical or specialty chemicals production for purposes of improved traceability as well as, flexibility.
5     Continuous plants are usually used to manufacture commodity or petrochemicals while batch plants are more common in speciality and fine chemical production as well as, pharmaceutical active ingredient (API) manufacture.
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PostPosted: Sun Sep 19, 2021 10:27 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Chemical Plant +Continuous oper Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Chemical Plant +Continuous operation
Chapter 8

Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Chemical Plant  
Continuous operation
1     In continuous operation, all steps work continuously in time.
2     During usual continuous operation, feeding and product removal undergo streams of moving material, which together with process itself, all effect simultaneously and continuously.
3     Chemical plants or units in continuous operation are usually in a steady state or approximate steady state.
4     Steady state means that quantities related to process do not change as time passes, during operation.
5     Such constant quantities include stream flow rates, heating or cooling rates, temperatures, pressures, and chemical compositions at whatever given point (location).
6     Continuous operation is more efficient in many large scale operations like petroleum refineries.
7     It is possible for some units to operate continuously and others be in batch operation in a chemical plant; for example, see Continuous distillation and Batch distillation.
8     Amount of primary feedstock or product per unit of time, which a plant or unit can process is referred to as capacity of that plant or unit.
9     For examples: capacity of an oil refinery may be given in terms of barrels of crude oil refined per day; alternatively chemical plant capacity may be given in tons of product produced per day.
10     In actual daily operation, a plant (or unit) operates at a percentage of its full capacity.
11     Engineers typically assume 90% operating time for plants, which work primarily with fluids and 80% uptime for plants, which primarily work with solids.
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PostPosted: Sun Sep 19, 2021 10:28 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Chemical Plant +Process control Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Chemical Plant +Process control
Chapter 8

Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Chemical Plant  
Process control
1     In process control, information gathered automatically from various sensors or other devices in plant is used to control various equipment for running plant, thereby controlling operation of plant.
2     Instruments receiving such information signals and sending out control signals to perform this function automatically are process controllers.
3     Previously, pneumatic controls were sometimes used.
4     Electrical controls are now common.
5     A plant often, has a control room with displays of parameters such as key temperatures, pressures, fluid flow rates and levels, operating positions of key valves, pumps and other equipment, etc.
6     In addition, operators in control room can control various aspects of plant operation, often, including overriding automatic control.
7     Process control with a computer represents more modern technology.
8     Based on possible changing feedstock composition, changing products requirements or economics or other changes in constraints, operating conditions may be re-optimized to maximize profit.
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PostPosted: Sun Sep 19, 2021 10:31 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Chemical Plant +Workers Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Chemical Plant +Workers
Chapter 8

Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Chemical Plant  
Workers
1     As in whatever industrial setting, there are engaged a variety of workers, working throughout a chemical plant facility, often organized into departments, sections or other work groups.
2     Such workers typically include engineers, plant operators and maintenance technicians.
3     Other personnel at site could include chemists, management / administration and office workers.
4     Types of engineers involved in operations or maintenance may include chemical process engineers, mechanical engineers for maintaining mechanical equipment and electrical / computer engineers for electrical, Instrumentation engineers for computer & equipment.
5     Also, required would be civil maintenance team, as & when necessary
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PostPosted: Sun Sep 19, 2021 10:32 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Chemical Plant +Transport Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Chemical Plant +Transport
Chapter 8

Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Chemical Plant  
Transport
1     Large quantities of fluid feedstock or product may enter or leave a plant by pipeline, railroad tank car or tanker truck.
2     For example, petroleum commonly comes to a refinery by pipeline.
3     Pipelines can also, carry petrochemical feedstock from a refinery to a nearby petrochemical plant.
4     Natural gas is a product, which is supplied all way from a natural gas processing plant to final consumers by pipeline or tubing.
5     Large quantities of liquid feedstock are typically pumped into process units. Smaller quantities of feedstock or product may be shipped to or from a plant in drums.
6     Use of drums about 55 gallons in capacity is common for packaging industrial quantities of chemicals.
7     Smaller batches of feedstock may be added from drums or other containers to process units by workers.
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