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58 Story High Rise Building Foundation Failure in USA
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VPandya
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PostPosted: Tue Aug 09, 2016 6:04 pm    Post subject: 58 Story High Rise Building Foundation Failure in USA Reply with quote

Dear  Sefi Engrs,
Even with the best efforts and best engineering consulting companies on the project this happens even in USA (in spite of best quality control):
Please go through this  news from latest ASCE  SmartBrief  about a 58 story Tower  in San Francisco , CA  USA is  leaning. Just think of the COST  OF THE PROJECT . It  is USD 350.0 million dollars. When we Structural Engineers/Contractors/Builders  goof (MAKE  MISTAKES) we do it on a big scale ( I live in San Francisco, CA) :  
ASCE  SmartBrief: Dated   2
ndAugust 2016:    
Video : 58 Story Tower being called  “Leaning  Tower  Of   San Francisco “


Web-Link for Video and News:


http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2016/08/01/sf-landmark-luxury-high-rise-millennium-tower-is-sinking-fast/
  


SAN FRANCISCO (KCBS) — The Millennium Tower, one of the city’s mostprestigious addresses, is sinking fast. The luxury high-rise is home to celebrities like Joe Montana and Hunter Pence. Condominiums in the 58-story building have price tags as high as $10million. According to KCBS and Chronicle Insider Phil Matier, an engineering report says that the 58-story, $350 million luxury high rise has sunk by 16 inches since its completion in 2009. It’s also tilted by two  inches to the  northwest.  The news did not inspire confidence among building residents.  “It’s scary,”said resident Mark Weir. “I’ve seen a lot of surveyors, so I kind of thought something was up like that and I’m pretty shocked. ”

“The leaning tower of San Francisco,” said another Millennium resident,Joe Keegan.  
Who is to blame  for the problem depends on who you ask.     Millennium Tower officials say the sinking was triggered  by excavation work for the nearby Transbay Terminal.But Transbay officials point out that the tower had already sunk by ten inches before the Transbay dig began. They blame the problems on the way the high-rise was built. “To cut costs, Millennium did not drill piles to bedrock,” said the transit authority in a statement. Had it done so, “the tower would not be tilting today.” In fact, the MillenniumTower sits on an area of mud-fill. It is not steel-framed, and instead relies on shear walls, columns and beams. The building is anchored overa thick concrete slab and its pilings extend about 80 feet into  dense  sand  not into the bedrock which lies about 200 feet below street level. "


Regards.


Vasudeo Pandya  P.E.  

Structural  Engineer






Last edited by VPandya on Tue Aug 16, 2016 4:57 am; edited 6 times in total
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vegad
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 10, 2016 2:23 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks for sharing Sir.
So the building is like a huge concrete vessel floating on dense mud.
Solution to counter the sway by adding weight may again cause more settlement!
Looks like a puncture in the building pressure bulb caused unequal settlement.
If that is so, it shall be a big lesson for engineering section of development authorities.
Please do share the remedies, when decided upon.
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VPandya
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 10, 2016 6:36 pm    Post subject: I will keep you posted when I get the solution to this failure problem. Reply with quote

Dear  Er.  Vegadji,  
I agree with you . We should know,  what is the solution of this 58 Story High  Rise Foundation Failure ( Sinking/Tilting) problem.  I will keep all at SEFI posted when I get the solution.    

Regards.

Vasudeo  Pandya  P.E.
Structural Engineer
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PostPosted: Fri Oct 21, 2016 3:53 am    Post subject: Post Revised Reply with quote

See revised Post.

Last edited by VPandya on Fri Oct 21, 2016 4:26 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostPosted: Fri Oct 21, 2016 4:18 pm    Post subject: Re: Latest from Builder of 58 story Leaning Tower in San Francissco. Reply with quote

VPandya wrote:
Dear  Sefi  Engrs,
This the latest news from  " Builder/Owner  of  58 story Leaning Tower in San Francisco.  

From: Latest ACI CONCRETE SMARTBRIEF , 20th Oct. 2016:

Millennium Tower developer’s about-face on next big SF high-rise:
Facing a legal and public-relations nightmare with its sinking and leaning Millennium Tower, the San Francisco highrise’s developer is redesigning the foundation of its newest luxury condo project up Mission Street — with the idea of going all the way down to bedrock.
“It calls into question all the other projects (downtown) that aren’t going to bedrock,” Supervisor Aaron Peskin said Wednesday when informed of Millennium Partners’ possible change in plans for its high-rise at Third and Mission streets.
Construction work is already underway on the 45-story condo tower at 706 Mission St., which will house the new Mexican Museum on the first four floors and incorporate the 10-story Aronson Building next door.


Several Millennium condo owners have sued the developer, fearing that the bad publicity and safety questions are tanking the value of their units.

Millennium Partners brought in a structural engineer who said the building’s problems had not compromised its ability to survive a major earthquake. And several experts told The Chronicle last month that high-rises constructed on bay fill don’t have to go to bedrock — and that, in fact,several others around the Millennium also have piles that don’t reach bedrock.

Web-Link:  
http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Millennium-Tower-developer-rethinks-plan-for-next-9984628.php


I have seen a major BRIDGE FAILURE in USA on  a  expressway where 13 cars were in the River ( Picture attached.  I-35W Mississippi River Bridge) .  Point is we can never hide  our Structural Engineering mistakes. We usually are responsible for a good number of   BREAKING  NEWS  on  TV.


Regards.  

Vasudeo  Pandya  P.E.
Structural  Engineeer   



Picture of Bridge Failure in USA attached.


I35_Bridge_Collapse_4crop.jpg
 Description:
I-35W Mississippi River Bridge Failure.
 Filesize:  195.56 KB
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I35_Bridge_Collapse_4crop.jpg


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PostPosted: Sat Oct 22, 2016 8:27 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The doctor's mistakes are buried in the grave.
Trees and ivy cover the architect's failures.
The engineer's works are out in the open where all men can see them.

--- Herbert Hoover.
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vsmkumar
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PostPosted: Sun Oct 23, 2016 7:34 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Sir,
from the photograph the bridge seems to be continuous at support, and connection failure of top cord member in tension near support reason for collapse.
is it right?
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PostPosted: Mon Oct 24, 2016 4:58 am    Post subject: Report from NTSB , USA on I-35W Bridge Failure. Reply with quote

Dear  Er.  Manikumar,
There are many reports on  I-35W  Bridge  Failure shown in the picture I attached. But NTSB report should be final . Here are some details.    
Report from “ NTSB ( National Transportation Safety Board) , USA : Accident Report Detail : Collapse of I-35W  Highway Bridge:   Executive  Summary :  About 6:05 p.m.central daylight time on Wednesday, August 1, 2007, the eight-lane,1,907-foot-long I‑35W highway bridge over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis,Minnesota, experienced a catastrophic failure in the main span of the decktruss. As a result, 1,000 feet of the deck truss collapsed, with about 456 feetof the main span falling 108 feet into the 15-foot-deep river. A total of 111vehicles were on the portion of the bridge that collapsed. Of these, 17 were  covered from the water. As a result of the bridge collapse, 13 people died,and 145 people were injured.  
Before determining that the collapse of the I-35W bridge initiated with failure of the gusset plates at the U10 nodes, theSafety Board considered a number of potential explanations. The following factors were considered, but excluded, as being causal to the collapse:corrosion damage in gusset plates at the L11 nodes, fracture of a floor truss,preexisting cracking, temperature effects, and pier movement.
Probable Cause:
The NationalTransportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of the collapseof the I-35W bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, was the inadequate load capacity, due to a design error by Sverdrup & Parcel and Associates, Inc.,of the gusset plates at the U10 nodes, which failed under a combination of (1)substantial increases in the weight of the bridge, which resulted from previous bridge modifications, and (2) the traffic and concentrated construction loads on the bridge on the day of the collapse. Contributing to the design error was the failure of Sverdrup & Parcel’s quality control procedures to ensure that the appropriate main truss gusset plate calculations were performed for the I-35W bridge and the inadequate design review by Federal and State transportation officials. Contributing to the accident was the generally accepted practice among Federal and State transportation officials of giving inadequate attention to gusset plates during inspections for conditions of distortion, such as bowing, and of excluding gusset plates in load rating analyses.  

Web-Link: Fifth Update:
http://www.ntsb.gov/news/press-releases/Pages/Fifth_Update_Investigation_into_Collapse_of_I-35_Bridge.aspx


See if this helps. As I understand from this report there was an  DESIGN ERROR. Gusset Plates  in steel truss connection point were not thick enough.  

Regards.  

Vasudeo  Pandya  P.E.
Structural Engineer
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vsmkumar
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PostPosted: Mon Oct 24, 2016 5:59 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Vasudev pandya sir,

Thank you for giving reply and providing links.
as per the links given by you the failure initiated by  
"a lateral instability at the upper end of the L9/U10W diagonal member led to the subsequent failure of the U10 node gusset plates on the center portion of the deck truss".

I understood from the above statement that diagonal compression member under designed , which led to its buckling and in turn the gusset at ends rotated and failed.

my belief is that
In design of steel structures there two dangerous enemies
1. buckling of compression members
2. connection of tension members


hence  what we have to learn from the I35 bridge collapse is that diagonal compression members to be designed with same care as that of top chord and bottom cord members.
regards,
kumar
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Dr. N. Subramanian
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PostPosted: Mon Oct 24, 2016 6:17 pm    Post subject: Re: 58 Story High Rise Building Foundation Failure in USA Reply with quote

Dear Er Pandyaji,

Thank you very much for the interesting news about the sinking of 58 story tower in SFO. Is this building in DownTown SFO? In USA the persons who bought flats can sue the Builder/Promoter and get compensation. But in India, they have to suffer for life.

Is it the mistake of Soil Consultant or Structural Engineer? I think not in all places they are not driving the piles up to the bedrock level, especially when the bedrock depth is large.

Warm regards,
NS

VPandya wrote:
Dear  Sefi Engrs,
Even with the best efforts and best engineering consulting companies on the project this happens even in USA (in spite of best quality control):
Please go through this  news from latest ASCE  SmartBrief  about a 58 story Tower  in San Francisco , CA  USA is  leaning. Just think of the COST  OF THE PROJECT . It  is USD 350.0 million dollars. When we Structural Engineers/Contractors/Builders  goof (MAKE  MISTAKES) we do it on a big scale ( I live in San Francisco, CA) :  
ASCE  SmartBrief: Dated   2
ndAugust 2016:    
Video : 58 Story Tower being called  “Leaning  Tower  Of   San Francisco “


Web-Link for Video and News:


http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2016/08/01/sf-landmark-luxury-high-rise-millennium-tower-is-sinking-fast/
  


SAN FRANCISCO (KCBS) — The Millennium Tower, one of the city’s mostprestigious addresses, is sinking fast. The luxury high-rise is home to celebrities like Joe Montana and Hunter Pence. Condominiums in the 58-story building have price tags as high as $10million. According to KCBS and Chronicle Insider Phil Matier, an engineering report says that the 58-story, $350 million luxury high rise has sunk by 16 inches since its completion in 2009. It’s also tilted by two  inches to the  northwest.  The news did not inspire confidence among building residents.  “It’s scary,”said resident Mark Weir. “I’ve seen a lot of surveyors, so I kind of thought something was up like that and I’m pretty shocked. ”

“The leaning tower of San Francisco,” said another Millennium resident,Joe Keegan.  
Who is to blame  for the problem depends on who you ask.     Millennium Tower officials say the sinking was triggered  by excavation work for the nearby Transbay Terminal.But Transbay officials point out that the tower had already sunk by ten inches before the Transbay dig began. They blame the problems on the way the high-rise was built. “To cut costs, Millennium did not drill piles to bedrock,” said the transit authority in a statement. Had it done so, “the tower would not be tilting today.” In fact, the MillenniumTower sits on an area of mud-fill. It is not steel-framed, and instead relies on shear walls, columns and beams. The building is anchored overa thick concrete slab and its pilings extend about 80 feet into  dense  sand  not into the bedrock which lies about 200 feet below street level. "


Regards.


Vasudeo Pandya  P.E.  

Structural  Engineer




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